Rapid response and cooperation between federal and state agencies contained this outbreak and eliminated the source of infection. In April 2000, the USDA diagnosed rabbit calicivirus in a backyard facility in Iowa. Rabbits inoculated experimentally with laboratory strains of the virus invariably develop small nodules at the point of injection after several days; similar nodules develop later on other parts of the body, particularly the ears. Rabbit calicivirus disease was confirmed in a group of 27 rabbits in Iowa in April 2000 in the USA. The Russian or Himalayan rabbit is white with black extremities. rat • Long - Evans hooded: • Developed by Dr. Long & Evans at Berkeley, California in 1910. The second type, caused by the cottontail (Shope) papillomavirus, is characterized by horny warts on the neck, shoulders, ears, or abdomen and is primarily a natural disease of cottontail rabbits. A strain of these rabbits bred in a French rabbitry has shown a strong rate of ovulation. Viruses are not important causes of clinical disease of rabbits in the USA but include the infectious fibromas, papillomatosis, rabbitpox, myxomatosis, and a herpesvirus infection (virus 3). New Zealand White Rabbit - CR Details. Rodents and rabbits are often used to produce antibodies for a variety of research objectives. CAR bacillus is a gram-negative, filamentous rod … Personnel may be exposed to allergens through inhalation and contact with skin, eyes and mucous membranes. We do not control or have responsibility for the content of any third-party site. In 2018, 133,634 rabbits were used by United States Department of Agriculture licensees, representing a 11% increase from the previous year. Laboratory rabbits can be purchased from commercial vendors such as Covance, and range from $89-$292 per animal, depending on age and weight. Skin tumors caused by the Shope papillomavirus never occur in the mouth. Sprague-Dawley and Wistar are the main rat strains. A purulent nasal discharge invariably appears, breathing becomes labored, and the rabbit goes into a coma just before death, which usually occurs within 1–2 wk after clinical signs appear. Pox lesions may be present on the skin. The Jackson Laboratory, Charles River Laboratories, Taconic Biosciences, and Harlan Laboratories are the main suppliers. , 48, 52-6. The earliest lesion is a slight thickening of the subcutaneous tissues, followed by development of a clearly demarcated soft swelling. Experimentally, the virus is shed for only 1 wk after inoculation. In the USA, myxomatosis is restricted largely to the coastal area of California and Oregon, where epidemics occur infrequently but sporadic cases are common. They are used in skin and eye irritation studies, such as the archaic and painful Draize tests for cosmetics, personal care, household products and other chemicals. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside of the US and Canada) is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Myxomatosis is called “big head” and is characterized by mucinous skin lesions or myxedema of the head. C57BL/6 and BALB/c are the main mouse strains. At that time P. B. Sawin took a chinchilla stock of unknown origin with him to the Bussey Institute. The virus may be isolated or the infection diagnosed serologically by methods appropriate to vaccinia. Rabbits used in research who are suffering from pain and distress may display a number of signs including lack of appetite, weight loss, self-mutilation, aggression, tremoring and/or vocalization. The gestation period for laboratory mice is generally consistent within a strain but varies among strains from 18-21 days. The causative virus is closely related to vaccinia virus, and some outbreaks may have been caused by a virulent strain of vaccinia. Rabbit calicivirus disease was first reported in 1984 in the People’s Republic of China, from whence it spread through the domestic and wild rabbit populations in continental Europe. 53 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 1552 Cilia-associated respiratory (CAR) bacillus is a relatively recently identified pathogen of wild (73) and laboratory rats and, to a lesser extent, mice and rabbits; it has been used in experimental infections of guinea pigs and hamsters (598). Occasionally, a rabbit survives for several weeks; in these cases, fibrotic nodules appear on the nose, ears, and forefeet. Wild rabbits such as the cottontail (Sylvilagus) and jackrabbits (Lepus) are quite resistant. , DMV, MSc, DABVP (ECM), DECZM (Small mammal). Most research workers use outbred, genetically heterogeneous, rats such as Sprague-Dawley, Wistar or Long-Evans stocks. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. Preventive measures include protecting rabbits from exposure to arthropod vectors. Few characteristic gross lesions are found at necropsy in the acute form of the disease. Large, eosinophilic, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the conjunctival epithelial cells are also helpful in diagnosis. This controversial use of rabbits resulted in some of the first large-scale protests against animal experimentation in the 1970s and 1980s and pushed the scientific community to search for in vitro alternatives. Infection results in a peracute febrile disease causing hepatic necrosis, enteritis, and lymphoid necrosis, followed by massive coagulopathy and hemorrhages in multiple organs. Arthropod vectors transmit the Shope papillomavirus; therefore, arthropod control could be used as means of disease prevention. Two inbred rabbit strains, JWY-NIBS and NWY-NIBS, were established by full-sib mating in the Nippon Institute for Biological Science, Laboratory Animal Research Station. of Nagano Prefecture, Japan. In acute outbreaks, some rabbits may die within 48 hr after signs appear. Rabbit, any of 29 species of long-eared mammals belonging to the family Leporidae, excluding hares (genus Lepus). It carries the Himalayan C" gene mutation. Healthy rabbits do not have E coli of any strain associated with their GI tract. Mexico successfully eradicated the virus by 1992. Rabbits are also given no pain relief during this excruciatingly painful test, and after the test is finished, they are killed. Rabbit Council but the New Zealand White (NZW), bred in the 1920s has become the one most commonly used in … The trusted provider of veterinary information since 1955, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases of Rabbits, Which of the following best indicates respiratory distress in a blue-headed parrot (, Last full review/revision Sep 2015 | Content last modified Oct 2015, © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), © 2021 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, Associate Professor of Zoological and Exotic Animal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Medicine &and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine. Transmission occurs via mosquitoes, fleas, biting flies, and direct contact. However, housing systems for laboratory animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic aspects (e.g., equipment, costs, space, workload, ability to observe the animals, and ability to maintain a certain degree of hygiene) with little or no consideration for animal we… The calicivirus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by direct contact with infected rabbits or indirectly by fomites. Approximately 20-30 percent of individuals working with laboratory animals will develop an allergic reaction to animal proteins and 5-10 percent of individuals will develop asthma. The USA is currently considered free of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. In 1995, as a result of a laboratory accident in southern Australia, the virus escaped from quarantine and killed 10 million rabbits in 8 wk. A fibroma virus, a member of the pox-virus group, causes this tumor, which is found on the legs, feet, and ears. They have also been used as bioreactors for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. The link you have selected will take you to a third-party website. Major research applications are in immunology, oncology, physiology, pathology, and neuroscience. 2002 ). Where there is a choice, the use of isogenic strains is strongly recommended. The causative virus is closely related to vaccinia virus, and some outbreaks may have been caused by a virulent strain of vaccinia. EIN: 36-2229588, Privacy Policy | Find Your Legislator | Site Map | Email Us, The Cruelty and Waste of Animal Experimentation, Failure of Animal Protection Laws and Regulations, The Animal Testing and Experimentation Industry. Morbidity rate is often 100%, and mortality 60%–90%. Therefore, it is concluded that Kbl:JW rabbit is one of the useful rabbit strains to evaluate the effects of test substances on embryo-fetal development, especially in view of the chronological stability of spontaneous or drug-induced malformations in the fetuses." Rotaviral enteritis also has been diagnosed in the USA and seems to contribute to the overall problem of intestinal disease in rabbits. Commonly used laboratory rabbits strains The order Lagomorpha comprises of cottontails, hares, pikas and rabbits. New Zealand White rabbits, large albino rabbits, are the most common breeds of rabbits used in research, although other breeds, including Dutch Belted rabbits are used as well. Most rabbits develop a fever and nasal discharge. Laboratory rabbits can be purchased from commercial vendors such as Covance, and range from $89-$292 per animal, depending on age and weight. Two types of infectious papillomas occur infrequently in domestic rabbits. A killed vaccine effectively reduced the incidence of rabbit calicivirus in Europe in the late 1980s. These areas correspond to the geographic distribution of the California brush rabbit (S bachmani), the reservoir of the infection. Shope fibromas are found under natural conditions only in cottontails, although domestic rabbits can be infected by inoculation of virus-containing material. Lab. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. rabbits are recognized in North America by rabbit breeding associations, and numerous strains and specific mutations are available commercially for research purposes (Fox, 1974; Lindsey and Fox, 1974; The Jackson Laboratory, 1975; NRC U.S., 1979). It is thought to have originated in China and spread from there to the USSR and Poland. 800.888.NAVS (312.427.6065) Sci. Many congenital malformations have been observed in instances where inbreeding of rabbits has been practiced. PMID: 19245751 The seasonal incidence of the disease, clinical signs (especially the swollen genitalia), and high mortality are all of diagnostic significance. However, about 200 inbred strains of rats have been described, with about a dozen strains being commercially available in the USA, Europe and Japan. The following guidelines are intended to eliminate or reduce to a minimum, animal discomfort associated with the use of antibody production in laboratory animals. In 2018, about 43% of the rabbits used in research were subjected to procedures involving pain and distress. We see rabbits used in research because of their relatively large size and docile nature. Myxoma virus–infected Sylvilagus develop fibroma-like lesions similar to those caused by rabbit fibroma virus. Laboratory Rabbit Diet. Rabbit strains find immense application in biomedical research with every strain having their discrete advantage in the specific research endeavor. The spleen is occasionally enlarged and is almost always devoid of lymphocytes when examined histologically. Fibromas may be found in domestic rabbits in areas where they are endemic in wild rabbits and where husbandry practices allow contact with arthropod vectors. This virus is antigenically related to human coronavirus strain 229E and it has been suggested that the rabbit virus is a human contaminant. Serotypes O15:H, O109:H2, O103:H2, O128, and O132 are also important. Rabbit calicivirus disease is highly infectious in European rabbits (Oryctolagus), but cottontail rabbits and jackrabbits are not susceptible. A few outbreaks have been reported in the USA since 1930. This vaccine is not available in the USA, and because there is no effective treatment, euthanasia and burying or burning of affected rabbits is indicated. Myxomatosis has a worldwide distribution. For example, it is 18.5 days in C57BL/6J (000664) mice, 20 days in BALB/cJ (000651) mice, and 21 days in A/J The source of infection was not determined. The New Zealand White rabbit was obtained in 1991 by Charles River Canada (CRC) from Kitayama Labs K.K. Enteropathogenic strains of E coli (serotype O103) commonly express the eae gene, which codes for intimin, an outer membrane protein associated with the attaching and effacing lesions. The Jackson Laboratory is committed to setting quality standards in animal care and ensuring that these standards are maintained throughout all of our mouse colonies. Rotavirus is shed in the feces of infected rabbits and, therefore, is probably transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Environmental conditions such as housing and husbandry have a major impact on the laboratory animal throughout its life and will thereby influence the outcome of animal experiments ( Baumans 2004 ; Van de Weerd et al. Rabbits show few clinical signs and die within 6–24 hr of fever onset. An attenuated vaccine prepared from a myxomatosis virus has protected rabbits infected under both field and laboratory conditions. • Head and extremities - black or brown • Rest of the body - white with pigmented eyes … This full life-cycle diet comes in a pelleted form and is a complete feed that requires no extra supplementation. Lab Supply is proud to carry a great selection of rabbit diets, including Laboratory Rabbit Diet from LabDiet. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. New Zealand White rabbits, large albino rabbits, are the most common breeds of rabbits used in research, although other breeds, including Dutch Belted rabbits are used as well. All other mammals are refractory to the virus. The eyelids, nose, lips, and ears become edematous, which gives a swollen appearance to the head. The most characteristic lesions seen at necropsy are a skin rash, subcutaneous edema, and edema of the mouth and other body openings. Rotavirus has been isolated from rabbits with diarrhea in many different countries. Inbred strains are also available, but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. Several rabbits died during the experiments, and some were executed immediately after. laboratory rabbits. A few outbreaks have been reported in the USA since 1930. Neither type of papillomatosis is treated, and the condition usually resolves spontaneously over time. Anim. The American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) was founded in 1910 and is the national authority on rabbit raising and rabbit breeds having a uniform Standard of Perfection, registration and judging system. The Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. Zoonoses Associated with Rabbits. The origin, breeding history, and biological characteristics of the two inbred strains are as follows. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are seen when sections of the tumor are examined histologically. The initial sign is conjunctivitis that rapidly becomes more marked and is accompanied by a milky ocular discharge. It is probable that rotavirus is only mildly pathogenic, but most rotavirus infections are complicated with pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium spp or E coli. Rabbits are vaccinated at 10 wk, and annual boosters are recommended. At Professional Laboratory and Research Services, Inc. , a product testing laboratory in North Carolina, workers attached thousands of ticks onto rabbits’ shaved bodies and allowed the insects to gorge for five days. In females, the vulva becomes inflamed and edematous; in males, the scrotum swells. After mice and rats, they are the most common laboratory animal. Rabbits are commonly used for toxicity and safety testing of substances such as drugs, chemicals and medical devices. The first report of the virus in the Western hemisphere was in Mexico City in 1988. A characteristic sign at this stage is drooping of the edematous ears. There is no treatment, but the infection appears to be self-limiting if susceptible rabbits are not continually introduced into the population. Chicago, IL 60604 Choice of Species and Strain Neil D. Christensen, Xuwen Peng, in The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents, 2012 B, Y, A, C, and R Inbred Lines (The Jackson Laboratory) Five inbred strains , B, Y, A, C, and R (the R line has become extinct) were originally developed at the Jackson Laboratory, and maintained by full-sib mating ( Chai and DeGenhardt, 1962; Crary and Fox, 1980 ). And die within 6–24 hr of fever onset response and cooperation between federal and state agencies contained this outbreak eliminated. At this stage is drooping of the rabbits used in a French rabbitry has shown a rate... 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